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Ortelius / Lhuyd, Humphrey: Cambriae Typus. (Wales)

£475.00 Approx $600.51, €539.16

Code: 53605



 Date:1580-1612

Copper engraving with original hand colouring.Overall size : 50.9cms x 38.6cms.  Engraved size: 493mm x 348mm. This is variant 2  of the first state of the new plate.  Referred to by Dr North as variant A2.  It is the same plate as the first state but some areas have been re-engraved, the most noticeable feature is the additional stippling which appers around the wording HIBERNICUM MARE in the sea.  This map has glorious full wash hand colouring but at some point a past custodian cut the decocrative border in half around the map but kept the cut off borders.  These have now been skilfully professionally re attached ; the backstrip has been laid down to cover a crack at the centrefold some 20 cms long, barely visible but a slight gap in North Wales can be discerned.  Two brown marks top right blank area.  Nonetheless a stunning example of this first printed map of Wales.  French text on verso.  The identifying number bottom right verso is now obscured so the likelihood is that it was published in either 1574/1587/1598 according to the work of Ortelius scholar Marcus van den Broecke in his book Ortelius Atlas Maps.  The only map possibly in English, Welsh (British) and Latin and the border is shown as the River Severn so Hereford is shown in Wales (it was under the jurisprudence of the Welsh Court at Ludlow)

Title: CAMBRI:|AE TYPVS Auctore | HVMFRE|DO LHV:|YDO | Denbigiense Cam:|brobritano. [Map of Wales, by the author Humphrey Lhuyd the Welshman from Denbigh,] (lower right:) Cum Priuilegio. [With Privilege]. Text block lower left side: L. A. B. litteræ, vocabilis | adiectæ, notant illud esse | Latinum, Anglicum, aut | Britannicum, quod est | incoliarum. [the Letters L. A. and B. added to names means that these are the names according to Latin, English or the Britain language, according to the inhabitants]. Text block upper right corner: Aliquod Regionum huius | tractus synonijma, prout | Latine, Britannice & An:|glice etiamnum appellantur. [some synonyms of this region, as they are called in the Latin, Britain and English language at some time (with some examples below this text)]. (Text block lower left:) Rossia, Hic | Frandriæ sedibus suis inunda:|tione maris expulsi, ab Henrico | I. Wilhelmi F. mißi; in hunc us:|que diem a Cambris lingua & moribus diuersi cog:|noscuntur. [Here the Flemish were sent, expelled from their settlements by an inundation of the sea, by Henry the First, son of Wilhelm; until this day they are known to be different from the Welsh in language and manners.] Text block middle top left: Aberfrau, | olim totius | Cambriæ | Regia [Aberfrau, once the royal residence of all of Cambria.] Lower centre left: Tibius flu.L. | Teifi B. hic fluuius | solus in Britannia | castores habet. [this river is the only one in Britannia that has beavers.] Lower centre, leftish: Maridunum.L.Caerdfyrdhyn | Merlini famigeratiß patria. [Maridunum in Latin, Caerdfyrdhyn in Welsh, the home of the famous Merlin.] Upper right: Denbigh Auc:|:toris patria [Denbigh, the home town of the author of this map.] (Upper right:} Bangor,|olî coenobium|2100.mo:|nachorum. [Bangor once had a monastery with 2100 monks.] Centre right: Matrafal, | olim Regia | Pouisiæ. [Matrafal, once the royal residence of Povisia.], Centre right: Mont Gomeri, A.|Trefaldwyn.B.Hinc | olim generosi equi, nunc uero paucos | emittit. [Mont Gomeri in English, Trefaldwyn in Welsh. From here came once excellent horses, but now they only export few of them.] Centre left: Hic hale:|cum cap|tura. [Here they catch herrings.] Ptolemæus is mentioned twice on the map: at the mouth of the river Sabrina and centre left at the isle of Lymnos.

This is  the first published individual map of the Principality.   Humphrey Lhuyd was an M.P. and personal physician to Lord Arundel ; tragically he died at the age of 41 , five years before his map was published.  There are map dividers  bottom left, a monster just off Ramsay Island and  a sailing ship above. Translation of  the  text available -  some delightful comments i.e. they (The Welsh) do not like hard work and are very proud of their nobility (so) they tend to enter the service of the king and the nobility rather than take up handicrafts...they are superior to the English in that, however poor, they spend some time in schools and those who show themselves apt scholars are sent to High Schools where most of them study law.